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日弁連,「女性及び女児に対するあらゆる形態の暴力の撤廃及び予防について」(国連女性の地位委員会提出)

日本弁護士連合会(日弁連)は,2012年11月15日,「国連女性の地位委員会(CSW)」(2013年3月に開催される)に,「Eliminating and preventing all forms of violence against women and girls 」(「女性及び女児に対するあらゆる形態の暴力の撤廃及び予防について」)と題する文書を提出しました。

「日本弁護士連合会は,国連経済社会理事会との協議資格を取得している組織である。

女性に対する暴力は,歴史的に不平等な男女の力関係の表れであり,男性の女性に対する支配・差別を容認し,女性の地位向上を妨げてきた。女性に対する暴力は,個々の女性の自由及び基本的人権の享受を妨げ,女性一般の地位を押しとどめ,平等,開発及び平和という国際社会共通の目標の達成を阻む障害である。

家庭内における暴力や性的虐待,職場・教育機関その他の場所におけるセクシュアル・ハラスメント,女性の人身取引や強制売春など,女性のライフサイクルに現れる全ての身体的・性的暴力及び心理的暴力は廃絶されるべきであり,国際社会はその対策を講じ,努力を続けてきたが,いまだ不十分であり,女性の自由・権利の保護・促進は十分に図られていない。

日本においても,政府は一定の努力をしているものの,いまだ多くの女性に対する暴力問題が存在し,性犯罪,セクシュアル・ハラスメント,DV,子どもに対する虐待及び性的虐待,人身取引等が多発している。2010年の児童買春,児童ポルノに係る行為等の処罰及び児童の保護等に関する法律違反の検察庁新規受理人員は2090人にものぼり,年々増加している。また,都道府県労働局雇用均等室に寄せられた男女雇用機会均等法に関連する相談内容のうち「セクシュアル・ハラスメント」は過半数を占めており,年間1万件を超えている。

このような日本の状況と,長らく制度的・社会的な男尊女卑がまかり通ってきた日本の歴史的背景とは無関係ではない。現行憲法で男女平等がうたわれて65年以上が経ってもなお,いまだその影響を払拭できずにいる。

例えば,強姦罪や強制わいせつ罪の構成要件である「暴行・脅迫」が「相手方の抗拒を著しく困難ならしめるもの」と極めて狭く解釈されているため,被害者に必死の抵抗が認められない場合,加害者に対する迎合的な態度が認められる場合,上下関係など心理的強制を利用したセクシュアル・ハラスメントの場合には,立件が困難であること,強姦神話の存在,セクシュアル・ハラスメント,性暴力事案の賠償金が極めて低いことなど,人権の最後の砦である司法においてさえ,根強いジェンダーバイアスが存在していることは明らかである。

2010年において,強姦罪での執行猶予率は59.0%であり,強盗罪の17.9%に比して著しく高くなっている。

また,雇用における男女格差・差別や,女性議員が少なく,政治意思決定の場面に女性の意思を反映することが出来ないという社会構造的な問題も,女性に対する暴力を廃絶できない大きな原因の一つである。しかも,男女差別が一部男性を巻き込んだ雇用形態による格差に形を変えたため,かえって男女差別が見えにくくなり,差別を助長している面さえある。したがって,女性に対する暴力を廃絶するには,男女間における雇用格差の解消,女性議員の増加も急務である。

日本では,国連人権諸条約機関及びUPR等から,従軍慰安婦問題についての懸念・勧告を受けながら,いまだ解決が図られず,さらなる政府の対応が必要な状況である。従軍慰安婦問題が未解決であることは女性に対する暴力や外国人女性に対する暴力問題を軽視するものである。

また,沖縄においては,これまでも駐留米軍兵士による強姦事件等,女性が被害に遭う事件が多くあり,最近でも,2012年10月16日に女性に対する集団強姦致傷事件が発生しており,早急な対応が求められている。
我が国において,女性が平和のうちに安心して生活できるよう,政府の積極的かつ真摯な対応が求められるところであり,国連を始め国内外を問わず,全ての男女が連帯・連携しながら,女性に対する暴力撤廃のために努力すべきである。」


Eliminating and preventing all forms of violence against women and girls (To CSW57)Japanese

Japan Federation of Bar Associations
November 14, 2012.



Japan Federation of Bar Associations is a non-governmental organization in special consultative status to the UN Economic and Social Council.


Violence against women is a manifestation of the historically unfair power relationship that has existed between men and women. It permits control and discrimination by men against women and obstructs improvement in the status of women. Violence against women impedes each individual woman’s enjoyment of her freedom and her basic human rights. It holds down the general status of women and acts as an obstacle preventing women from realizing goals shared by international society such as equality, development and peace.
All physical as well as sexual and psychological violence against women and girls affecting their cycles of life, such as domestic violence , sexual abuse, sexual harassment occurring at the workplace, education institution or other places as well as human trafficking and forced prostitution, should be eliminated. International society has devised solutions against these kinds of violence and made continual efforts but these are still inadequate and the freedom and rights of women and girls are not adequately fostered and protected.


Even in Japan where the government has made certain efforts, the main problems of violence against women still exist, and sexual crimes, sexual harassment, domestic violence, child abuse and sexual abuse of children as well as trafficking in persons etc. occur frequently. In 2010 up to 2090 people were pointed out to the public prosecutors offices for violations of the Act on Punishment of Activities Relating to Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, and the Protection of Children, and this number increases annually. “Sexual harassment” comprises the majority of consultations concerning the Equal Employment Opportunity for Man and Women Act convened by the regional employment equality consultation bureaus, with more than 10,000 cases being heard annually.
These current conditions in Japan are not unrelated to Japan’s historical background that for so long has let systematic and social male domination of women go by. Before the World War II as women were routinely deemed inferior to men, the former Civil Code denied the legal capacity of women under the system of patriarchy, and women were denied suffrage. Although the Constitution stipulates gender equality since its enactment in 1946 and the Civil Code was also revised, our society has not yet gotten rid of the influence of historically formed male domination.

An example would be the extremely narrow interpretation of the legal elements comprising the crimes of rape and forced indecency “violent and threatening” that require “remarkable compromise of the other party’s resistance”. It is therefore difficult to establish a case when it is not accepted that the victim puts up frantic resistance, when it is held that the victim had an ingratiating attitude or in such cases when for example a senior relationship is used as psychological force for sexual harassment. This, and things like the existence of myths about rape and the extremely low compensation payouts for cases of sexual harassment and sexual violence, make it clear that even in the judiciary, which is supposed to be the last bastion of protection for human rights, gender bias is deeply rooted. In 2010, a suspended sentence was given in 59.0% of rape crime cases which is extremely high, compared with 17.9% of robbery crime cases.

Further, the social structures such as disparity and discrimination between men and women in the workplace, a lack of women executives and a failure to reflect women’s thinking in political decision-making venues also serve as a significant source that obstructs eliminating violence against women. Because discrimination between men and women has changed form into a kind of disparity caused by employment formats that includes a number of men, not only has it become difficult to spot discrimination, but this change has in some respects come to help foster it. Accordingly, in order to eliminate violence against women there is an urgent need to eliminate discrimination against women in the workplace and to increase the number of female political representatives.


In Japan, even while subject to expressions of concern and admonitions concerning ”Japanese military comfort women” problem from United Nations human rights treaty organizations and the Universal Periodic Review etc., the problem has still not been resolved and further action by politicians is required. The fact that ”Japanese military comfort women” problem has not been resolved means that violence against women and the problem of violence against foreign women are viewed lightly.
Moreover, in Okinawa there have been many cases in which women and girls became victims, for example those cases of rape etc. committed by US military personnel stationed there. Just recently, on October 16, 2012 there was a case in which a woman was subjected to a gang rape which shows that there is an urgent need for action.


In order for women to live in peace and safety in Japan, a proactive, sincere response from the government is required. We must strive to eliminate violence against women and girls, with all men and women standing together in solidarity from Japan and abroad including the United Nations.


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by medical-law | 2012-11-17 06:19